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Marapa nata rahvaona ( The Maras and Politics) PDF Print E-mail
Written by Mr.Moses C.Tehlo   
Tuesday, 26 June 2012 14:55
 

 

 

Paper Presentation

On

 THE MARAS AND POLITICS

(40th Mara Students Association Conference, Ngepheta Village)

 

 

 

 

                                                Mr. Moses C. Tehlo                                                                                 Dt.  15.4.2012

 Mr.Moses C.Tehlo

                                                                                                        Mr. Moses C.Tehlo   

Bie hmiapa

Ei-40th na Mara Students Association Conference, Ngepheta khih  liata “The Maras & Politics” tahpa

Paper presentation hnei thei awpata na khokheituhpa MSA leaders zydua cho liata alynabie ei reih hmeiseih. Cha leipa chhaota he su liata a vawtlo/avaw hlao theipa nama zydua choliata chhao alynabie ei reih meiseih hra. Politics phapa eima hnei khiah ta cha nohto eima hrona liata apeimawh chaipa hnatlana (Health), thaina-sona (Education) eima tivyna (Economic) nata eima thlahpa hmahsiena (Spiritual Welfare) zydua chhao he autometically ta apha khai thlah ha awpa a cha. Chakhiahta cha Politics tahpa thatih he reih pahmaoh khoh tua ei s'u.

 Politics tapa he khapa maw?

 Politics tahpa he Nono(myuhpawno) ta a Myuh-no kha ano ryureina ku ry liata soh ha awpa achhuah ngathlah tyhpa nata, chahawh pyly ta Myuhno ta  a Nohno cha ano ryureina ry liata soh awpa achhuah ngathlah tyh hrapa hawhpazy he Politics tah awpa a cha.

 “Politics, Polity nahta Political” tahpa hawrawhzy he Greek reih “Polis” tahpa tawhta a vypa chata, hlano Greek City-State tahna  a cha. Greek chyhsazy he nohto ama khihsana asosah via thei n'awpa chata rai ama hria tyhpa he Politics tahpa cha a cha. Atanoh duahmo deikua politics eima tah tita Ministers, Cabinets nahzy biepathlupa, Election Campaign, Political Party activites, laws nata Public Policy panano awpa vata movement ama taopazy he  politics tahpata eima pahnona dahtlahpipa a cha. Political Scientists zyta ama reih dah ta cha Biepathluna (Making Decision) he politics tahpa a cha. Political decision tahna yzie cha politicians zy ta decision ama taopa zydua he zawpi (Public) pahno khai ha awpa tahna a cha. Bietluna ataotuhpa zydua he keimo vyuhpata eima tlyhpatlohpazy ama chapa vata ama bie pathlupazy cha apyhpata, eima za thai awpa chhao acha hra.   

 Sawkha tahpa he khapa maw?  

 Sawkha (Government) he zawpi vyuhpata bie pathluna ataotuh awpata ama tlyhpazy py (Organization) tahna a cha. A yzie ta cha, zawpi atlypatlohpazy he ama yna su chyu tawhta vawsie chyupata, hmaohkha ta ta rai a hria khohpazy he ama cha. William Howard Taft ta a reih dah ta cha Sawkha he zawpizy pha n’awpa chata rai a hriatuhpa a cha a tah. Chahawhna tlai chata, zawpi hmahsiena, adyhryhna, chariah adyuna nata ahropazy dua he sawkha ta a tao thei hmeiseihpa avaw cha.   Ary lata theory  zy he rah padua awpa liata hmah awpa zy a cha. Cha zycha: 

Nightwatchman State: Nighwatchman State tahna yzie cha a rah chyhsa zawpi hmahsie thei n’awpa chata education, health nata ahropa development zy he hriapapua leipata, sawkha ta ataopa dah rypa (Basic Law & Order) nata Rah pabohsana (Defence) dei ta ahriapa sawkha tahna a cha.  20th Century liana khata he hawpa Rah (State) he aza hlu kawpata pahnopa a cha.

 Police State:  Police State tahpa yzie cha ryureihtuhpazy ta amo khodah hawh tlaita ama taopa dahrypa zydua he police hmapata a pabohsatuhpa sawkha tahna a cha. He hawhpa rah he Germany rah liata Adolf Hitler nata Russia rah liata Joseph Stalin zy ryu amareina sawkha hawhpa kha a cha.

 Welfare State: welfare State tahpa yzie cha a rah leilo sawzy hmahsiena ataotuhpa rah tahna chata, kaokha lata social service ahriatuhpa sawkha tahna chhao a cha hra. He hawhpa sawkha he cha arah zawpi a papeimawhsa hmeiseihpa vata zawpi achakaotuhpa sawkha tah awpa chhao a cha hra.He hawhpa sawkha heta chiehleipazy,heih alyuleipazy, machapazy, meika tilai-runa atyhpazy nata ahropzy dua hnohta baona a pie lymatuhpa chhao a cha hra. Rah eima padua khoh khiahta cha he mia-thohpa(3) hry liata miakha he hmah awpa tla a cha .

Khazia e Sawkha eima byu?

 Social Theorists zy nata Politicians zy ta sawkha eima ngiahna chhapa ama rei dah ta cha:

1        Eima community nata eima rah he apha kawpata padua awpa  eima  khohpa vata,

2        Thlalohna hro eima hneithei nawpa nata dah-phoh eima hneipazy pabohsa thei n’awpa eima khohpa vata ( Security & Order),

3        Hmobaoh eima hneipa zydua nata rights eima hneipa zydua pabohsa awpa eima khohpa vata.

4        Eima Economic asosah via awpa nata palaiseihsa via awpa eima khopa vata,

5        Social Justice eima hnei khohpa vata. Social Justice tahpa yzie cha hneirohpa nata sipasapazy apathlua pa-eihna y lei pata, ahneiropa nata sipasapazy eima duahmo akaw lyu thei n’awpata sawkha hneirona zydua he sawkhata maniah arairuah lyma awpa he a cha.

6        Heihlyuleipa chysah zydua he pabohsa awpa eima khoh pavata. Achhapa cha aheih hawhta atah khaoleipa chyhsa/Family/Community nah zy he amo sasyh ta bie reih thei khao lei pa eita, rei n’awpa chhao pahno thai khao heih hra lei pa eita, ama hneipa hmobaoh zydua chhao pabohsa thei khao hra va ei. Chahawhpa chyhsazy chata bie areikheituh awpa nata hmobaoh ama hneipazy a pabosatuhawpa eima khohpa vata sawkha he eima peimawhpa a cha.  

Khapa vata e Sawkha he buana nata rairuna a taotuhpa a cha ha ty?

 Sawkha zydua he pha khai leipa ei ta, kheihawhpa sawkha tlyma cha a rah leilo sawzy pabohsa awpa hla ta cha ama chata rairuna nata buana (Problem) a taopatuhpazy tlao ama vaw cha ha tyh. Chahawhpa sawkhazy ta a rah leilo sawzy chata rairuna nata buana ama tlokhei theina dahzy cha he ary liata points zy tawhna heta avaw laichadai tua ei sila.

  1. Sawkha heta Community miakha khokhei viapata, ahropa community a khokhei khao leipa vata ama khihsana avaw nano syulyu ha tyhta, chavata ama chata rairuna (problem) a vaw cha ha tyh.
  2.  Sawkha he arah leilo sawzy rights pabohsatuh awpa a cha nga nota tlao aparaotuhpa a vaw cha haw nata cha arah leilo sawzy chata rairuna(problem) lata avaw lie haw tyh. A yzie cha political rights ama hneipa a parao hawpa vata thisai palona hluhpi y ta, chyhsa hluhpi hrona chhao a leidia ha tyh.
  3. Eima rah economic avaw hnaitu haw nata sawkha he problem lata avaw cha haw ty hra. A yzie cha, sawkha ta a rah economic zydua, industries nata companies zydua avao khai haw tahna a cha. Sawkha ta arah economic zydua avao khai haw khiata cha hmahsiena arai aru kaw. Achhapa cha sawkha rai ahria pa zy heta sawkha rai ama hmo khaitawhta cha thlalona (Job Protection) ama hnei hawpa vata Private liata ahria pazy hawhta tiama papua khao tyh va ei.
  4. Social Scientists zy nata Economists zy ta ama reina dah ta cha, sawkha liata officers zy nata politicians zy he kyhpachana ahnei hmeiseihleipazy ama cha lei tarawpata, zawpi pha n’awpa hlata cha amo mopakha/family pha n’awpa akhoh viapazy ama cha ha tyh.  Chahleikhota, amo avaw bao thei awpa chyhsa zy cho lia deita phana ama tao khoh tyh hra. Chahawhpa daihti liata sawkha he problem lata avaw lie hawty hra ama tah .
  5. Sawkha tawhta baona ahmotuhpazy he baona ama hmo via lyma awpa ama khohpa vata sawkha ryureina nata sawkha policy panano awpa he khoh thai tyh vei ei. He hawhpa chyhsazy he Society liata power ahnei kawpazy a ma cha heih hra. Amozy nata sawkha ryureituhpazy cha viasa phapata ama vawcha haw nahta sawkha he problem lata tlao avaw cha syulyu haw tyh hra. 

Democracy

 Rah miakha liata Problem zydua pathlapazi khai thei n’awpa chata Democracy he apeimawh chaipa a cha. A rah Problem pathlapazi khai thei nawpata akhohpa maihta Democracy he khoh aw eita, arah problem pathlapzi awpata akhohleipa maihta Democracy khoh hra aw vei ei tahna a cha.  Reinhold Niebuhr ta, “Democracy he problem eima pathlapazi thei khaolei pazy pathlapazi n’awpa chata a cha” tahpata a reih hra. Ado hmeiseih pata ei pahno.

 Democracy tahpa he Greek rei “ Demos” “Chysahpazy or zawpi’ tahpa nata “ cratia’“biehneina” tahpa tawhta a vypa a cha. Democracy tahna yzie cha “Zawpi Biehneina”( the power of the people) or “Zawpi ryureina” (ruled by the people) tahna a cha. Abraham Lincoln, USA 16th President ta, “Democracy tahna yzie cha zawpi pha n’awpa chata, zawpi ta atlypa zawpi ryureina (The government of the people, by the people for the people) acha tahpata a reih. Democracy ta achhuah chaipa cha chyhsapa zydua politics liata ama duahmo a khokhai thei n’awpa nata hmahsiena ama hnei khaithei n’awpa tahpa he a cha.

 Foundation of Democracy

 Foundation of Democracy zy cha: Rule of Law, Freedom of thought, freedom of expression, freedom of association, freedom of assembly, freedom of religion, freedom of media nata  election zy he a cha.

 Rule of law tahpa yzie cha, zawpikhopa dahryhpa taota, cha dahryhpa haw tlaita si khai awpa tana a cha. Daryhpa ta a hy hmia hmata a moh awpa cha vei tahna a cha hra.  Freedom of Thought tahpa yzie cha, ahyrai  a no kho dah hawhta a free kawpata apacha thei aw  tahna chata; Freedom of Expression tahpa yzie cha, ahy rai ta apalorupa liata apachapa zydua a free kawpata areihpapua thei  tahna  cha heita;  Freedom of Association tahpa yzie cha, ahy rai ta  akhopa Py(organization) cha a free kawpata apadua thei tahna cha heihta;  Freedom of Assembly tahpa yzie  cha, ahy rai  amo khona daihti nata su liata free kawpata ama hmaoh(pohpakhy) thei tahna  cha heita;Freedom of Religion tahpa y zie  cha, a hy rai  ano khopa Religion liata a y thei tana chata, awnanopa activities zydua a free kawpata ataothei hra  tahna  cha heita;  Freedom of Media tahpa yzie cha ahy rai akhopa thatih a free kawpata roh theita, apapua thei hra tahna a cha. Acho liata palasapa hmozy khi rah miakha liata a y mah vei khiah tacha, cha rah liana chata Democracy aduah theimah awvei tah awpa a cha.

 Democracy Achhuana

  Democracy ta achhuachaina cha, arah chyhsa zydua khotalaina (  Freedom) ama hnei khai thei n’awpa, amaduahmo akhokhai thei n’awpa ( Equality), Unawsietano hmeiseihpa haw tlaita amahmo khai thei n’awpa ( Fraternity),  Daihti rypaopa amahmo khaithei nawpa ( Opportunity) hmasiena amahnei khai thei n’awpa ( Development ) nata adyryna ( Peace) phakawpa ama hneithei n’awpa zy he  achhua viachai na a cha.

 Election

 Election he Democracy liamarih chaipa chata, Election a y vei khia ta cha Democracy y hra leipata, election liata atlyhpatlohleipazy ta ryureina liata a ma hlaokhia ta cha Democracy hmeiseihpa chama hra vei tah awpa a cha. Election tahpa yzie cha keimo vyuh pata bie areituh awpa nata hmo ataotuh awpa atlyhna tahna a cha. Keimo vyuh pata tahna yzie cha keimo hla chhao hmahta  zo achhih viapa nata ngachhih viapa tahna a cha heih. Vote eima hneipa he hmotaotheina ahnei ngasa. Abrahm Lincoln ta arei dah ta cha “Secret Ballot is stronger than Bullet” Meithei chari hlata Vote he atlo via  syulyu ata. Chahawhta achapa vata,  Vote ahneipa zyduata  vote power he hmahthai achhuah cheingei awpa abyuh. US President Barack Obama ta he hawhta a rei hra “Aphakawpa ta pachana chota hmo eima tao khiatala sawkha phapa nata leader phapa eima hnei thlah ha aw. Anodeikua, thathi kaw pata nata shortcut saita eima pacha thlah khiah tala, Democracy rah liana heta sawkha chhiepa nata leader chhiepa deita eima hnei thlah ha aw” a ta.

  Federalism

 Federalism tahpa y zie cha, Central sawkha biehneina nata State sawkha biehneina (Power) he pachhaihapata, ama rairuah ha awpa tahpa nata ahy hmata ama biehneina cho liata a pabua paba tla lei pata, ama biehneina dah hawhta ryu reih chyu awpa tahna a cha. Pakhopana ta Foreign Affair, Security, Fanacial, etc. zy liata Central Govemenrt ta biehneina hneisala, Education, Health, etc. hawhpazy liata State Government ta biehneina ahnei aw tahna a cha. Chahrasala,he heta Central Gov’t. nata State Gov’t. biehneinazy cha 100% ta pachhaihpa a cha tahna cha hlei vei.

 Secularism

 Secularism he Western Secularism tahpa nata Indian Secularism tahpata y ta. Western Secularism tahpa yzie cha Church nata State he panano ha awpa tahna a cha. Wetsern Society he Church ta ko-1500 rahchho ryu reihta, cha daihti liata Church he State cho lata a y pa a cha.  Church nata State pananopa acha khai tawhta State he Church cho lata a y ha ba. Indian Secularism tahpa yzie cha, State nata Religion he panano ha awpa tahna a cha hra. Chatawhta, Religion zydua he alyupa ta hmo khai awpa cha awta, State ta akheihawhpa Religion hmahta khokhei viapa hneilei pa aw ta, aphaviana chhao tao hr’aw vei tahna a cha. Secularism ta achhuahna chaipa cha, State nata Church he panano ha ta, State he Church cho lata soh ha awpa tahna a cha.

 Citizenship

 Citizenship he sawchana nata aza lyu kaw. Chhohkha liata sawchapaw nata sawchano zy eima cha pavata eima no nata eima paw zy tawhta eima hmo awpa (Rights & Previleges) hluhpi y ta, keimo tawhta eima kaw hria laih awpa (Duties and Responsibilities) hluhpi a y pyly hrapa hawh tlaita sawkha ta keimo chata atao awpa hluhpi y ta, keimo chhao sawkha chata eima tao awpa hluhpi a y pyly hra. Chahawhta a chapa vata saw ta apaw hnohta akhopa hiah awpata ngiaryleina achyta hmata ahneilei pa hawta keimo chhao eima khopa he Sawkha liata hiah awpa ngiaryleina achyta hmahta eima hneilei awpa a cha.

 Reservation

 Reservation he tovyuh piechhieliena tahna a cha.  Rah la siepita sakhi meitheita ka saopita,  nazuahsa, araosa, akysa, azahsa, a uthei phei, asihnaiphei, tahpa eima soh chhielie tyhpa kha Reservation tah awpa a cha thlah. Reservation ta achhuah chaipa cha ama duahmo ahnai viapazy he ama duahmo pasah via ta, ama duahmo asah viapazy nata ama duahmo pakho ha awpa tahna a cha. Pakhopanata  achuna nata raipiena ( Education & Employment) liata Minority chyhsa nah he tovyuh pie chhilie awpa tahna a cha. Pakhopanata Mara Siku hawtizy he   kokha liata mo-  5   MBBS, mo-5  BE, mo-5   Agriculture, mo-5  law, mo-5  Master and mo-5 Ph.D achu tyh maw ei sy tahpa hawhpa he a cha.Chahawhta avaw cha ha tita cha Marasawzy nata Viahpa sawzy eima duahmo akaw kho thei awpa a  cha. Achhapacha, Democracy rah lia ta ryureituhpazy he Majority Vote ta a tlyhpatlohpazy ama chapa vata dah-phoh (Law) ama taopa maih he amo phasana lata acha via ha tyh. Reservation he khizaw rah 110 hlata ahluhvia ta hmah nga hai eita, cha zy hry liana chata India rah he ahmah hluh chaipa a cha. Reservation System ama hmahpa vata buana/rairuna y lei pata, hmahsiena tlao a cha.

                              Ko-1 liata Professionaline achuty pa zy

Universities/Institutes

Chapaw-

Chano

Chapaw zydua

Chano Zydua

Total

Yearly

Medicine

60 %

40 %

1440

960

2400

Dental

80 %

20 %

200

50

250

Lives Ltock

80 %

20 %

80

20

100

Agriculture

75 %

25 %

225

75

300

Forestry

90 %

10 %

45

5

50

GTC

60 %

40 %

10800

7200

18000

GCC

50 %

50 %

3050

3050

6100

Total

58.26 %

41.74 %

15840

11360

27200

 

GTC= Government Technical College

GCC= Government Computer College

Source= Guide Booklet for University entrance, Ministry of Education Report by All Burma Federation of Student Unions, 2003, May

                                                                                                              

Institutes of High Education in Burma

 

States

University/Colleges/ Degree Colleges 

 Kachin

7

Kayah

3

Karen

4

Chin

3

Mon

4

Rakhaine

4

Shan

13

Total

38

Divisions

University/College / Degree Collegs

Irrawaddy

12

Mandaly

32

Magwe

11

Pegu

9

Sagaing

10

Tenassarim

7

Yangon

31

Total

112

 

 

 

THE MARAS & POLITICS

 The Maras tahpa yzie cha ‘Marapa chyhsa’ tahna chata  Marapa chyhsa tahpa yzie cha ‘Mara leilo saw’ tahna a cha. Mara leilo sawzy pahrana rah he Mara Rah ( Maraland) tahpa a cha. Myanmar Sawkha ta khatino tawhta ma Marapa tahpa he maniah a zapahno tua aw va tly? tahpa he Maraland Politics kyh eima rei tita za pacha awpa abyuh hmeiseih. Eima Missionary hmotaopa, Awnanopa hmotaopa, Ex. MP Matlei hmotaopa, MTP Hmotaona, MSA hmotaopa nata  Mara University Students Meipaw Khaichei ( late) nata Meipaw Zatha zyta  Burma Radio Station tawta Mara hla ama kawsa tyh pazy he  viahpazy nahkhaoh liata angia aw vama? Pahno thei’pa cha vei. Eima pahno thei chhohpa cha,  Mara Evengelical Church he  Burma Council of Churches ( BCC tahma MCC) liata member cha awpa ta Rev. Raha nata Saya  C. Samau zy ta ko-1981 liata  Burma Ministry of Religious Affairs liata  register ama vaw tao pa he Burma Sawkha liata officially ta a ngiatuachaina a cha awpata pangiasa pa a cha. Ko 1990 liana khata Mara People’s Party ta Party Registration avaw tao noh  tawta official kawpata maniah ama vaw pahno pasia hmeiseih haw.Atahmahla daihti hmahsie chatlie ngaitapa liata keimo Marasaw zyta Myanmar sawkha tawhta eima ngiah ngaitakawpa hmo zy cha:

 1. Maraland Township

2. Amyotha MP-1, Pyithu MP- 1 nata State MP-2 Constituencies 

3.India- Myanmar-China International Highway through Maraland zy he a cha.  

 Maraland Township

 Marasawzy pahra khohna Khihpi avawdua nawpa suh he Lelaipi Khih he acha aw tahpata Khazohpata Ex. MP Matlei liata akho hawchiehpa ko-60 rachho lianakhata vision vaw pietuata, ko-30 rachho avaw sie heih nata, Beino chava kiapa liata Lokhao, Phaphe, Phemaw By liata acha aw tahpata Rev. Mathao hnohta Khazaohpa ta vision avaw pie hei. Ex. MP Matlei vision he atahma  cheingei ta atlo awpa zalyu kawta, Rev. Mathao vision he a hnola via/ Abeipa Zisu avy chyta avaw tlo awpata azalyu ngasa. Kheita rai acha pachhao ta, Myanmar rah liata Khihpipazy duahmo he mohtua rai ei s’u.

 Administrative divisions (Regions and States)

No.

State

Districts

Townships

Cities/Towns

Wards

Village groups

Villages

1

Kachin State

  3

  18

  20

 116

   606

  2630

2

Kayah State

  2

    7

    7

   29

     79

   624

3

Kayin State

  3

    7

  10

   46

   376

  2092

4

Chin State

  2

    9

    9

   29

   475

  1355

5

Mon State

  2

  10

  11

   69

   381

  1199

6

Rakhaine

  4

  17

  17

 120

 1041

  3871

7

Shan State

11

  54

  54

 336

 1626

 15513

 

Total

27

122

 128

 745

 4,584

 27,284

 

No.

Division

Districts

Townships

Cities/Towns

Wards

Village groups

Villages

1

Ayeyarwady

6

26

29

  219

  1912

  11651

2

Yangon

4

45

20

  685

    634

    2119

3

Manadaly

7

31

29

  259

  1611

    5472

4

Magway

5

25

26

  160

  1543

    4774

5

Bago

4

28

33

  246

  1424

    6498

6

Tanintharyi

3

10

10

    63

    265

    1255

7

Sagaing

8

37

37

  171

  1769

    6095

 

Total

 37

 202

 184

 1,803

 9,158

 37,864

 

No.

State/ Division

Districts

Townships

Cities/Towns

Wards

Village groups

Villages

 

Total

64

324

312

2548

13742

65148

 

Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burma ( Arrangement taopakhuapa)

Myanmar Rah liana heta chi-pho 135 eima y tahpa chata, cha liata Township 324  y ta, 122 he  Tla rah chyhsazy pahrana su liata paduapa chata, ahropa 202 pazy he Viah rah chyhsazy pahrana su liata paduapa a cha. Independence eima hmona tawhta ko-60 hlei avaw cha ha tarawpata, atahma taihta Marasaw Township eima hnei thei mah leipa he khapa vata ma a cha aw va tly? No-ah achhi ngai ta kaw. Myanmar Citizen hmeiseihpa cha ma pi ma? Mohropazy hawhta  apha kawpata mohoh tlah eima cha leipa ma a cha ha tly? Eima Issues he mohropazy  issues hlata apeimawh lei via hapa ma a cha ha va tly i? Tahpazy he pacha awpa apeimawh ngaita hmeiseih.    

  Ex-MP Matlei & Maraland Town/Township:                Marasawzy pahrakhohna, hmahsiena nata abohna chata Lelaipi khih he Khihpipa ta tao awpa tahpa he Ex.MP Matlei vision a cha. Ano chhaota atheina rakhata hmah avaw la lyma hra. Anodeikua, ko 1962 liata Burma Rah abua hapavata, Meithei a chaba pata Burma rah adyuh awpata Rahpatho pa lata maniah apua sai haw.

 MPP & Maraland Town/Township:                              Ex.MP Matlei ta Rahpathohpa lata maniah apuasai khai tawhta ko-30 rachhoh zydua he Maraland Township kyh reina y khao mah vei. Ko-1990 liata Burma sawkha ta General Election avaw taona daihti liata Mara People’s Party ( MPP) paduapa chata,  Darling ( Dawlei) khih ry liata Phemaw By liata Mara Khihpi padua awpa he MPP ta achhuahna a cha. Cha daihti liana chata Saya Zaopai (Ngephepi) nata Puhpa Robie ( Darling ) zy he  Hiakha lata tuapa ama cha. Anodeikua, Election khai tawhta Burma sawkha abua ha heihpa vata MPP he pachhasapa a cha hapa vata Maraland Township thatih reina y khao heih vei.   

 Lelaipi Town & Lelaipi Nopaw zy:                  MPP pachhasapa acha tawhta,Maraland Khihpi padua awpa achhuana y khao vei tawhta Lelaipi Khihpi hmo thei nawpa tahpa deikua Lelaipi Khichhoh Nopawpa zyta Board  zy vaw padua eita, hmah ama vaw la laih lyma. Chahrasala,he hmah la na chhao he hlaotlohna y pyly vei.  

 Maraland  Town/Township & ENDP:     Myanmar sawkha ta 2010 liata General election tao awpa acha pavata   Ethnic Nationalities Development Party ( ENDP) Political Party he Mara rah liata vawdua ta,  Maraland Township tahpa ao ( Voice) chhao  avaw paro pakhua ha ba heih. Anodeikua, ENDP he opposition liata a y hapa vata hmo lalaona hluhpi a y awpa a cha ha hei.  

 Maraland Township/Town under Myanmar Political Reformation Period:

 Political Transition/ Political Reformation period he politics liata apeimawh chaipa acha.  Ko 2010-2015 he chahawhpa daihti ta cha.  ENDP, Ngephepi liata Mara nopawzy ta amavawpaduapa Township Demand Board Cmmoittee  nata CNF  zy he Township eima hmo thei nawpa chata bie areih thei awpa body zy ama cha. CNF he sawkha nata   ceaefire/peace agreement atao ngahaipa cha ta, achhoh liata leadership liana heta Marasaw ama hlao hluh kaw. He he pahnothaipata, daihti rypaohpa(Chance) chata patu thai’pa abyu ngasa. Ngephepi liata Mara nopawzy ta Township hmo theina awpa  Township Demand Baord ama vaw padua pa he a eihrapata 100 % support khai thei a chhuah ei s’u.  He Board he khapa saw salei pata y awpa cha tiarahlei pata, eima papeimawhsa ngaita awpa tlao chata, anodeikua, chhihthatuhpa( leaders) zy cha  abyuhna hawhta panano lyma theih awpa he kho aza chhih kawpa a cha.    

 Maraland Town/Township under Democracy:          Political Reformation daihti kho lata cha  Myanmar Constitution nata Sawkha Policy zy nata amih/ahmie pata Maraland Township padua ba awpa a cha aw.  Myanmar Constitution (2008) reina dah tacha, Maraland Town/Township hmo thei nawpa chata eima zyduata eima khona eima palasa khai tawhta,  Chief Minister of Chin State ta President hnohta khokheina letter  ( Recommendation) maniah taopa awta,  President ta avaw pyh tua awpa eima peimawh heih. Hmonao kawpa chakhao vei tah thei’pa a cha. Chahleikhota Chin State liata town/township akhohpa ama hluh ngasa heih aw. Chatawhta, Khihpi thiehpa adua khiahtacha MP & MLA Constituency  eihrahpa piekhao leipata, a y chiepa  Constituency miakha hnohta pahlyhpa cha mawh sy tahpa acha ha hei.  Pakhopanawpata, Mara Chyhsa zydua Township miakha liata eima ypa a chakhiah ta cha or Township eima hnei ha khiahta cha Matupi/Thatla/Paletwa constituencies liata MP nata MLA Constituency chhoh liata y aw pita, majority eima kaw cha pa ha aw.  Elelction daihti liata chhao pahniena cha eima to cheingei thei ha aw pata pangiasa aza chhih kaw. Anodeikua, amo zy chata hmo lalao kawpa acha aw tahpa cha ala pasia thlah ha. Chahawhta a chapa vata township eima hmo awpazy he maniah ama khokhei lei n’awpa anao kaw.   

 Maraland Town/Township hmo thei n’awpa liata maniah a pakhatuh aw pa zy:                                  Maraland Township padua n’awpa su eima mo tita   “Or” tahpa hawrawh he hmah khao leipata, Lelaipi Khih he Mara Khihpipa chata tao awpata eima paloh araoh khai awpa a peimawh hmeiseih. Lelaipi mozy chhaota Lelaipi he Khihpi avaw cha ha tita “Keimo he azipa cha awpita, ahneituhpa chhao eima cha aw” tahpa palohru eima phaoh lei awpa he a peimawh ngaitapa a cha hra. Achhapacha, chahawhpa palohrupa cha buabana atlo kheituhpa a chatheipa vata a cha. Chahleikhota hehawhpa palohrupa eima hneipata acha khiah ta cha khihropazy  mania ama vaw support kho khao  lei  awpa vata.  Achhapacha, Lelaipi he khihpipa ta eima tao aw tahpa y zie cha, Lelaipimo chata khihpipa eima tao aw tahna cha leipata, Marasawzy chata khihpipa eima tao aw tahna tlao a cha. Township he Sawkha lata rai asaodah hawhta  khih miakha deita za saota hmothai rima’pa cha tiara vei tapa nata  Khihpipa he Rahpathohpa lia hmata padua thai’pa acha thlah tapa he eima pahno pasia thai via awpa azabyu hmeiseih hra. Anodeikua, Lelaipi he eima support khai chyu awpata abyuh. Achhapacha, Isai liata Khazohpata Vision apiepa hawhta Ex.MP Matlei liata Khazohpa ta vision apiepa aza lyu ngasa hleikhota, Lelaipi duahmo he apha ngasa. Cha achapavata, tano tawta ko-20 chho Lelaipi he support thei sila, pha vei ma?

 Chahleikhota, Lelaipi Sub-Town/Town ahmo khia tacha, Matupi, Paletwa nata Thatla pazy chatachhao nata ahropa zy chatachhao hmophapa a cha tapa amo paloru pa liata pahneisa thei lyma hr’ awpa a byu kaw hra. Achhapacha  amo mania ama support hlalei tacha, hmo thei khao awmapi ta thei pa    a cha haw ba.

 Amyotha MP-1, Pyithu MP-1, & State MP-2 Constituencies: 

 Mara Chyhsa pi he Myanmar Citizens hmeiseihpa nata Myanmar liata a pahrapa chipho-miakha eima cha hra tahpa palohrupa nata mokhaohta atano Myanmar liata Constituencies kheita e ama vaw taona dah acha tahpa mohpasia tua ei s’u.

 Constituencies at the National, State and Division Levels

States

Amyota MP

Pyithu MP

State-MP

Kachin

12

18

  40

 Kayah

12

  7

  15

Karen

12

  7

  17

Chin

12

  9

  18

Mon

12

10

  23

Rakhaine

12

17

  35

Shan

12

55

109

Total

84

123

237

 

 

 

 

Divisions

Amyotha MP

Pyithu-MP

Division -MP

Errawadyy

12

26

54

Manadaly

12

36

57

Magwe

12

25

51

Pegu

12

28

57

Sagaing

12

37

76

Tenassarim

12

10

21

Yangon

12

45

92

Total

84

207     

408

 

 

 

 

 Sources: http://election.irrawaddy.org/population-data/184-burma-population-data.html

 Myanmar Citizens hmeiseihpa nata chipho miakha achahrapa Marasawzy pi he Town/Township mia-1 eima byuh hmeiseihpa hawhta State MP Constituency -2, Amyotha MP Constituency-1, nata Pyithu MP Constituency-1 eima peimawh ngaitakaw hra. Tahmata Constitution liata hmo thei n’awpa lathloh y mah vei hrasala, hmo thei n’awpa lathloh eima tlua lyma awpa a byuh ngaitakaw.Pakhopanata, tahma Pheisaih nawh chata sopa 25 % he Civil chyhsa lata Transfer awpa daihti eima tlo cheingei awpata pangiasa achhih. Tahma ta  MP constintuency zydua  he Township nata population based ta cha hrasla, hmiala liata Tribe nata Gender ( Chano) chhao based awpa acha thei thlah ha awpata hnabeiseihna khacha eima hnei ngathlah ha awpa nata keimo chhao  eima hria papua lyma hra awpata aza byu hmeiseih. Myanmar MP 168 ( Amyotha) liata mo-1, 330 ( Pyithu) liata mo-1 , nata Chin State MP -22 liata mo-2 he Marasaw eima tovyuh acha tahpa pacha awpa abyuh.  Hnei thei n’awpa lathloh chhao eima tlua lyma awpa a byuh heih hra. He tluta ama hluhpa hry liata Center liata mo-2 nata State liata mo-2  raihrie Mara Representaives eima hnei hla lei ta cha  Myanmar citizens eima chana alapasia thei beih aw vei tahna he a cha.  

 India-Myanmar-China Interntional High Way through Maraland

 India  rah Mizoram State, West Maraland  tawhta East Maraland,  Myanmar akaw ngiasala,   Rezua akaw tlotheipa Motor lathloh he eima hnei thei khiahtacha, India-Myanmar-China International High Way through Maraland eima hnei ha aw tah thei’pa a cha.  Achhapacha, he lathloh achhih pata India tawhta China rah la siethei awpa acha awpa vata a cha. He lathloh he development pha kawpa, border security pha kawpa nata amo nata  relationship pha kawpa maniah apietuhpa acha awpa vata a cha.  Anodeikua, eima khoh nata khoh lei liata apahnieh thlah ha. Eima khohpata acha khiah 1,2,3 tahpata eima tao thei thlah ha aw. Eima khih cheingei achapia awpa khohkhai heih awpita, International level ta apachapazy hlata Local Level ta pachana ahnei awpazy eima za hluhvia cheingei heih aw.   China ta Myanmar a influence tu hapa he India paloh pahah thai vei.  Chatawta Myanmar rah liata oil  & gas akho ngasa hei. Chatawheita,  India Underground Naga nazy nata ahropazy he Myanmar rah based pa ama cha heihpa vata India rah North-East Security pha khao heih vei. He miathopazy vana heta Myanmar nata relationship phapa hnei awpa he ano chata apeimawh hmeiseih pa a cha. India nata China he kyh maniah ama pachana hlata amo nata amo competition ahnei viapa ama zalyu kaw. He hawhpa political climate he eima patu thaipata a cha khiahtala India-Myanmar-China International Highway Through Maraland cha eima tao thei thlah ha awpata pangiasa achhih ngasa hra.

 Community Building

 Khizaw liata community zydua he kyhpacha ngaitakawpa nata hriapasa ngaitakawpa tawhta avaw duahpa sai ama cha. Chahawhpa reileipata automatically ta avaw duahpa rai y tla v’ei. Community phapa ama padua thei n’awpata ama History zy, Literature zy, Culture & Tradition zy he pasokaw eita, mohoh pha lyma eita, ama palaiseihsa via lymapa hleikhota Cultural Festival zy chhao aronah kawpata ama hmah lyma tyh pa a cha. Community ama mohoh pha via lyma thei n’awpata phu nata py zy chhao ama padua laih lyma hrapa a cha. Marasaw zy chhao pita eima theina rakhata ta tao lyma pita, eima tao mah leipa zy chhao a y thei hra aw. Chatawhta, mo pakha chyuta eima pazao raihrie khai tahpa palohrupa (Sense of Belonging) nata eima support raihrie chyu awpa acha tahpa palohrupa (Sense of Support) eima hnei via rili lyma awpa he a peimawh hmeiseih. He liana heta kyhpachana hmeiseihpa nata tlokhu apiekhaina (Love & Commiment) he eima za peimawh via pachai. Mara Community he chyhsapa eima pohpa hawh deita chata, mopakha raihrie pi he “ mokhao, nahkao, ku, phei, ect) hawhta eima cha chyu. Eima pohpa hnatlana apha lyma thei naw pachata eima kuzy, pheizy, mokhaozy, pavyhzy, lopozy duata rai hria chyu eita ama baokha lyma pa hawhta keimo chhao eima tao laih chyu hra awpa eima byuh hmeiseih. Pakhopana ta, pheita achaba thai khao leipazy ku ta aza chaba pa hawhta mopakha tao thai khao leipazy kha mopakhata eima bao laih lyma awpa eima byuh hmeiseih. Chahawhta a cha khiata cha, eima community he community pha kawpa duahmo liata aduah laih lyma thlah ha aw.

 Isolationism (Apathluana)

 Democracy rah liata cha chi-pho hropazy tawhta puata, a eih hrahpata y ta, apathlua laih awpa policy he Marasawzy ta eima za hnei lei awpa kho achhih hmeiseih. Anodeikua, a kheihawhpa daihti liata tlyma cha tao cheingei awpa eima byuhna a za y parie thlah ha hra aw.Mara Society he eima za sai tita chihropa nata apathlua-paeih khohna palohrupa he a za lai ngasa pa kaw tyhpata a za lyu ngasa. Politics liata cha chihropa nata eima za pathlua laih lymapa a cha khiah ta cha eima chhuahna (Goal) tlo thei n’awpa a rairu hmeiseih aw. Achhapacha, Politics liata cha khokheituhpa phapa hneithei awpa he a peimawh ngaita kawpa vata a cha. Chi-pho hropazy nata eima kaoraohna he Foreign Policy hawh tluta pacha awpa abyuh. Foreign Policy ta achhuah chaina cha rah hropazy nata azaona phapa(relationship) tao tah, amo rah tawhta hmophapa hmo thei awpa he a cha. cha achapavata, Chihropazy nata akaoraophapa eima hneithei awpa he eima piemaw ngaita kaw hmeiseih.

 Unity in Diversity

 Unity in Diveristy tahpa yzie cha, eima chi-pho nata eima reihzy anano pa hawhtlai ta ahmo chyuta, a pyhkhei (recognize) khai chyuta apokha ha  awpa tahna he a cha. Tano Chin State liata chhao, Myanmar Rah liata chhao chi-pho he eima hluh ngasa. He chi-pho zydua he a eih-hrahpata ama reih hnei chyu eita, culture nata traditions eih-hrahpa chhao ama hnei khai chyu hra. Chahawhta a chapa vata Chi-pho eihrahpa ama cha khai tahpa pachana hnei khaina chota, chipho eih-hrahpa miakha ta tovyuh a hneipa hawhta a hropa chi-phozy chhao tovyuh ama hnei chyu hra tahpa pahno thaipata, apahnothai raihriena eima hnei awpa he a cha. A yzie cha, keimo chipho he chipho dopa cha pita, ahropa chiphozy he chipho ado ah-leipazy ama cha tahpa hawhpa palohru hnei leipata, cha chi-pho nanopa asyhpakhypazy pi cha pohkha hawhta eima chana he a cha.

 Nation Building

 Nation building tahpa yzie cha rah diasilipa nata rah hmasiepa padua thei nawpa chata hriapasana chota taohualuana  tana a cha. A yziecha, Myanmar  rah liata chyhsa chi-pho nanopazy hlukaw hra eisila, rah miakha chhoh liata a pahra khohpa eima chapa hawta hmaokha tata hriakhota  eima rah he a pha kawpata taopata, padua awpa tahna a cha. He liana he ta, arah chyhsa eima chana common dentity hneikhai theina awpa, eima rah apha n‘awpa chata eima pachana, achhuana hnabeiseihna alyupazy he palaiseihsa vialyh ma awpazy chhao azapei maw ngasa hra.  Pakhopanahawta, Myanmar citizenship hmeiseihpa eimachana  palorupazy   palaiseihsa vialyma awpa, Burmese reih zy he thai achhua vialyma awpa,  Festival eima hneipa Union Day, Independent Day nata Chin State liata eima hneipa Chin State Day (Chin National Day)  zy he celebrate via lyma ta  rah hla ( National Anthem) zy chhao hmaokhata  sakho lyma hra awpazy  chhao he aza peimaw ngasa hra pa a cha.

 Language & Politics

 Politics liata cha eima dyuh khohpa chyhsapa pahnie thei awpa nata maniah a support thei awpa ta eima khopa chyhsapazy reih he thai hmeiseih awpa eima byuh hmeiseih. Achhapa cha Langauge he communication phapa maniah pietuhpa, maniah a pahniasatuhpa, kyhpachana maniah a phneisatuhpa nata bieparu (Secret) zy maniah a pahnosatheihtuhpa achapa vata pahniena chhaichhi pha kawpa a cha. Chihro-phohropa reih (language) zy thai thei n’aw pata eima pikheipa reih he thai tua awpa a za byuh.  Achhapacha, ano pikheipa reih athai thei hmeiseihpa chyhsa he chi-phohropa reih chhao a thai thei hmeiseihpa a chapa vata a cha.  Tanoh Marasawzy ta Hakha rei (Langauge), Burmese, English, chatawhta Matu, Azao nata Khumi reihzy he thaithei eima chhuah awpa kho a za chhhih ngasa. Mahatama Gandhi nata General Aung San zy he English chyhsa adyuh awpa nata English chyhsa ta ama vaw support awpa ama khohpa vata English reih he achu hra eita, ama thai thei ngasa. English reih ta bie ama reipa zydua nata cha ama ropa zydua he a perfect ngasa. Taochhei tla v’ei. No-ah chhih ngaita kawpa a cha . Amozy hmotaona he tanoh Marasawzy ta eima mopa awpa ta kho aza chhih ngaita kaw.

 Politics & NGO

 NGO (Non-Govermental Organization) ta achhuah chaipa cha Government ta aza tao pha khao leipazy atao laihtuhpa nata athi thlah awpazy pachha papua laihtuhpazy ama chapa hawta, sawkha nata rai ahria khoh laih lymapa a cha. Chahawhta a chapa vata NGO he khizaw community zydua ta eima peimawh chyupa a cha. Democracy rah liata cha NGO he sawkha tawhta taka-phusa baona chhao ahluhpi adao theipa nata ahmo theipa ama cha hra. A yzie cha, NGO ahnei hluh viapa community zy cha NGO ahnei tla leipa community zy hlata ama development chatlie via aw tahna a cha. Democracy rah liata eima y ba awpa vata he he Marasawzy ta eima patu thai awpa a peimawh hmeiseih. Anodeikua, hmoto zydua liata politics he a peimawh chaipa acha tahpa he marasaw zyta eima my lei awpa khoh aza chhih ngasa.                                                                                                         

Maraland Authonomus District Council

 Tahma Myanmar Constitution liata Autonomous District Council he y vei hra sala, Marasawzy ta eima khoh ngaita kawpa political system a chapa vata he hmo he hmo thei awpata hnabeiseihna eima hnei parei thlah ha awpa a byu hmeiseih. Achhapacha, eima rah he Democracy rah cha ha bata, areileipa liata Federalism chhao he hmah thei awpata pangiasa achhih. A yzie cha, eima rah liata Federalism a vaw y ha khiah ta cha, Autonomous District Council chhao hmo thei n’awpa lathloh avaw pahy hra aw tahna a cha.

 The Maras & Myanmar Civil Service

 Myanmar Civil Service Recruitment ama tao tita khazia ma Marasaw eima tloh thei tyh vei tahpa he pacha parie thlah ha awpa abyuh. Pacha tua rai ei s’u. School phapa zy, Collage zy nata University zy eima hnei tla leipa vata education liata eima hnai via syulyu haw. Khihpipa eima hneileipa vata khitaw lia saita a y pa eima chapa vata eima knowledge he ahnai via syulyu haw heih. Civil Service Recruitment/Entrance ama tao tita Burmese reih ta tao pa a cha pavata, Burma naw tluta Burmese reih thai khao heih mapi. Reservation System ta atlyhpa chakhao leipata, Merit list ta a tlyhpa a cha haw heih. Merit list tahpa yzie cha athai chaipazy atly awpa tahna a cha. He hawhpa duahmo liata cha Rural liata a ypa zydua chata Civil Service liata kaw tloh n’awpa aria aru hmeiseih. Rural liata apahrapa zydua nata minority chyhsa zydua pi he Myanmar socio-polical mainline stream liata eima kaw hlao thei hra n’awpa ta Reservation System he Civil Service Recruitment, Education nata Employment liata maniah ama taopa cheingei awpa a byuh. Chata leipata cha tloh thei rima awpa cha vei. Tahma polical system liana heta, Civil Service nah, aviapachaihpata (especially) Township level liata a y penaw he West Maraland liata MADC nah zy nata ama za lyu daihma thlah haw.  Achhapa cha, Township level liata Development   Project zydua he amo ku liata a vaw y laih awpa vata a cha.  

 Mara School Hawti nata Politics

 Mara School hawtizy ta Mara Political affairs liata role eima hneipa cha, riahpha ngaita kawpata nata tiama ngaita kawpata MSA Activities eima hneipa zydua tao lyma awpa he a cha. Riahphana he knowledge tawhta zy, biehmeiseihpa pahnona nata biehmeiseihpa liata aduana tawhta zy, kyhpachana nata thlahpa lata pipathina zy tawhta  avypa acha. Cha hmozy cha hnei thei achhuah chyu’pa abyuh hmeiseih hra.  Government policy zy chhao achu lyma awpa eima byuh ngaita kaw. Chatawhta MSA he sawkha liata registeration taota, ahropa student organization zy nata apazao-pakhina tao lyma awpa chhao abyuh hmeiseih hra.  MSA Election a y tita a chyhsapa personality mopata vote pie lyma awpa chhao he azapeimaw ngasa hra.   Magazine liata Article eima ro tita Socio-political issues he ahluh thei chaina hawhta roh tah, Magazie chhao ahluh thei chaina hawhta papua pata, zawpi lata ama nao kawpata zuah lyma awpa zy chhao he apeimaw ngasa hra. Chin State nata State hropa lata Office zy liata Officer cha thei achhuah chyu awpazy chhao apeimawh ngasapa a cha hra.  Civil service nah he Politician hla chhao hmata apha viana nata hmotaotheina amahneina kao zy a y  thlah haw hra. Azydua liata apeimawh chaipa cha, apohkhana tao lyma awpa nata MSA he politics mathlaw (Political Wing) miakha ta acha hra tahpa he pahnopasia via lyma awpa zy he a cha.    

 Conclusion

 Marasaw zydua pita eima za buaba kheichai awpazy cha Maraland Township-1, Amyotha MP Constuency-1, Pyithu MP Constituency-1, State MP Constituency-2 zy he a cha. Hezy he eima hmo hla leita hiah hualua lyma awpa a cha.  Eima Rah liata Democracy avaw y laih lyma ha bapa he aly aza chhih hmeiseih eima tah nganota, Mara rah Politacal Issues he eima za pacha tyh nahta hnabeidyna zy, palohchhanazy, palohpasanazy nata buaba-tyhrynazy za hluh kaw tyh hrasala, Marasaw zydua eima pohkha chhoh zydua ta cha hnabeiseihna a y parie thlah ha aw. Eima pohkhana achha noh ta politics liata hnabeiseihna achha pa haw tah awpa chhao a cha hra.  Politics liata cha buavia, palohpasa achhihvia, apohkhavia tah awpa hleikho ta cha ahropa lathloh pha viapa y khao vei. Democracy eima hmo hawpa vata mo pakha/family phasana hlata zawpi phasana tlao eima tlua lyma awpa he apeimawh chaipa a cha.  Mahatma Gandhi ta he hawhta arei ‘ahmiatuata cha pahneisao aw eita, ahno la viata cha vaw tu (attack) aw eita, achhana liata nama ta napahnie thlah aw ei” a ta. Chahawhta a chapa vata, Marasaw eima khopa nata eima byuhpa Political System he eima kaw hiah nahta maniah za pahneisao tua aw eita, ahnola viata mania vaw tu aw eita, achhana liata keimo ta eima pahnie thlah ha aw tahpa he khacha eima za thei ngathla ha awpa ta kho aza chhih hmeiseih.

 Atako ta MSA bie pipa “ Akhokheina hro” tapa liata eima za mo khiata cha,  tahma tawta Awnanopa liata chakaona ahneipa he Awnanopa liata khokhei lyma sila, NGO liata chakaona ahneipa he NGO liata khokheilyma sila, Politics liata apahapa zy he Politics liata khokhei lyma sila, cha hawta ahropa chakaona ahneipa zy he amo nata amo chakaona amahneipa liata khokhei lyma chyu su vei. Chahawpa akhokheina cha akhokheina hmeihseihpa nata  akhokheina adopa a cha. Ahyrai  a chakaona acha lei pa liata eima khokhei khiata cha, khokheina hmeiseihpa nata adopa ahneilypa zy cha awpita, ti nata rah kypachana  hmeiseihpa ahneileipazy chhao eima cha nata chhao pangiasa achhi kaw .  MSA ta atako ta biepipa ahneipa he atako cha deita cha lei pasala, chhazaw chata cha theisala kho achhi kaw aw.   

 

 Ei chaly kaw ei.

 

Long live MSA!

For God and Maraland!

 

 

Mr. Moses C. Tehlo

PhD II Year

Political Science

University of Madras

Chennai

( Mr.Moses C.Tehlo he Dawlei khihpa chata Sayama Sikhei(Ngephepi) nata ama hnei. Sawchano uhtheipa Blessing C.Vakhinge sa eita, Angiapaw, Angiano tahpa ta aw tyhpa acha. BA,BD zy apatlo khai tawhta atahma University of Madras liata Ph.D Second Year he Political Science ta achu ngala.) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

 

 Hawkeswort, Mary and Koga, n Maurice. ( Edis),   Enccyclopedia of Government and Politics, Volume 1,  Routlege, London : 1992,

 

McLean, Iain and McMillan, Alistair., The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics, New York: Oxford University Press, 2008

 

Chaturvedi, A.K., Acadmic’s Dictionary of Political Science, Dehli: Acadmaic (India) Publisher, 2003

 

Gabriel A. Almond, Bringham Powell, G., Kaare Strom, Jr. Dolton, Russel J. Comparative Politics Today, Delhi: Person Education, 2006,

 

Taylor, Robert H.,  The State in Myanmar, Foundation Books new dehli,  2009

The Constitution of Myanmar 2008,

Gauba, O P., An Introduction to Political Theory, 4 edition, Delhi:  MaCMilian India Ltd, 2005

  Education Report 2002, compiled and Published by forein Affair Committe, all Burma Federation of Student Unions,  May 2003.

 

http://election.irrawaddy.org/population-data/184-burma-population-data.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burma

 

Last Updated on Tuesday, 03 July 2012 04:31
 
 

Peimawhpazy!

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